The state was ranked sixth among states in India according to the Human Development Index in 2011, and is the second largest state economy in India with Its official language is Tamil, which is one of the longest-surviving classical languages in the world. In addition, its people have developed and continue to develop classical arts, classical music, and classical literature.
lies in the southernmost part of the Indian Peninsula and is bordered by the union territory of Puducherry and the South Indian states of Kerala, Karnataka, and Andhra Pradesh.It is bounded by the Eastern Ghats on the north, by the Nilgiri, the Anamalai Hills, and Kerala on the west, by the Bay of Bengal in the east, by the Gulf of Mannar and the Palk Strait on the southeast, and by the Indian Ocean on the south.All three dynasties had extensive trade relationships with Rome, Greece, Egypt, Ceylon, Phoenicia, Arabia, Mesopotamia and Persia.Trade flourished in commodities such as spices, ivory, pearls, beads and gems.Mahadevan claimed that the find was evidence of the use of the Harappan language, and therefore that the "Neolithic people of the Tamil country spoke a Tamil language".
The date of the celt was estimated at between 1500 BCE and 2000 BCE.
AD 60 – 100) gives a description of the Tamil country and its ports.
Besides these three dynasties, the Sangam era Tamilakam (Tamil homeland) was also divided into various provinces named 'nadu', meaning 'country'.
The state shares a maritime border with the nation of Sri Lanka.
Tamil Nadu is the eleventh-largest state in India by area and the sixth-most populous.
Much later, the Pallavas were replaced by the Chola dynasty as the dominant kingdom in the 9th century and they in turn were replaced by the Pandyan Dynasty in the 13th century.